Shawnee GLOVE digitized!

Update and troubleshooting help

Big news here in the library and archives! All 30 boxes of Shawnee Tribal History Documents from the Great Lakes-Ohio Valley Ethnohistory (GLOVE) collection have been digitized and are freely available online!

Screenshot of the Archives Online at Indiana University webpage, showing the Shawnee subseries inventory with links to the digitized images.
The GLOVE finding aid on Archives Online – Shawnee subseries (June 2019)

Thanks to the Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma for including us on their Institute for Museum and Library Sciences (IMLS) grant. We were able to partner together to improve accessibility to the archival resources found in our collections by digitization. With their help we hired a part-time worker, Selena McCracken, to digitize more than 12,000 pages of copied historical documents directly relating to the Shawnee experience in the Midwest from the 16th to 19th centuries.

GLOVE History

If you’re unfamiliar with the Great Lakes-Ohio Valley Ethnohistory project, let me give you a quick rundown. The US Justice Department hired a team of researchers at Indiana University, headed by Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin, to research land use and occupancy of the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley regions (think the Midwest) for the Indian Claims Commission cases. Her small team spent over a decade in the 1950s and 1960s visiting any and all archives, libraries, and museums to find written information. They copied only those relevant documents (be they diary entries, letters, published books, etc.) and brought them back to IU, where they were organized by tribal group and then chronologically within each tribal group. These photocopies were used as references when compiling final ethnohistory reports submitted to the Justice Department as legal evidence. Normally, researchers wouldn’t keep their research notes after the final report has been written – but we’re SO THANKFUL these were kept.

Yes, we essentially have a collection of incomplete facsimiles, but what’s important is that they’re TOGETHER in ONE SPACE as a SINGLE COLLECTION. That’s what a collection is: objects particularly selected and brought together. Imagine being a researcher and trying to recreate this collection. Perhaps it would be easier with the Internet, but you’d still spend a lot of time searching… Secondly, our patrons want access. It’s really difficult to take a whole week to visit our facility and go through boxes and boxes of documents. It’s a privilege that not everyone has. My job as librarian and archivist is to make the materials accessible to those people. Digitization is our answer.

Accessing the Documents

Now an explanation on how you can access the collection! (With pictures!)

The finding aid, or written inventory, is available on Archives Online at Indiana University, in the Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin Archives.

Screenshot of the Archives Online webpage header
Archives Online header (June 2019)

The collection is divided into multiple series (microfilm, maps, reports, etc.) but the Shawnee documents are found within the Tribal History Document Series.

You can click on “Shawnee” in the menu on the left to pull up the subseries.

Screenshot of the menu on the left side of the GLOVE finding aid webpage
The menu along the left side, highlighting the Shawnee option.

Alternatively, you can use the search box in the left side menu to search the citations found on the finding aid. Unfortunately, you cannot use the search box to search within the digitized documents.

When you arrive on the Shawnee page, you’ll see links to the three federally recognized tribes at the top. We’ve been able to achieve more with the support and guidance of these partners. I hope that it also contextualizes these documents by showing researchers that the Shawnee people are still around and very active.

Screenshot of the top of the Shawnee content page.
(June 2019)

Beneath is the actual inventory of Shawnee boxes. Feel free to use CTRL+F to search the text on the webpage. I find it’s the quickest way to locate particular boxes or years.

Screenshot of the beginning of the Shawnee box inventory. It begins with Box 8001, Folder 01, Item 001.
(June 2019)

Every item has a bibliographic citation and 1 or 2 links.

  • “View item(s)” is the digitized document from our collections.
  • “Full text…” is where our coder was able to find the original document fully digitized online. You can find the pages that precede or follow our document!
Screenshot after clicking "View item(s)" when a smaller window appears showcasing the digitized document.
The digitized document shows up when you click a “View item(s)” link (June 2019)

Troubleshooting…

If you find that our digitized image doesn’t pop up, check your browser’s security settings. Several researchers have found that they must turn off pop-up blockers and other security features before the item shows up.

In Firefox:

  • Click the lock symbol next in the left side of the URL box
  • Click “connection”
  • Click “disable protection for now”
Screenshot of the Firefox browser's URL box. the lock symbol has been clicked deploying a window declaring the "connection is not secure."
Firefox troubleshooting: click the lock to the left in the URL box

In Google Chrome:

  • Click the shield symbol found at the right side of the URL box
  • Click “load unsafe script”
Screenshot of the google Chrome browser's URL box. the shield symbol has been clicked deploying a window declaring "insecure content blocked."
Chrome troubleshooting: click the shield to the right in the URL box

Next steps

Making 12,414 pages of documents relating to the Shawnee experience is only the first step.

Our goal is to get the entirety of the Tribal History Document Series digitized. It will take time, but we’re chipping away at it.

Next we need to make the documents we’ve digitized text-searchable. As I mentioned above, you can’t search within the digitized documents, but that’s a useful feature and would be ideal for researchers. It would allow for even greater accessibility because screen reading software cannot “read” these pages yet.

There are a few drawbacks to using the Archives Online platform, namely that it wasn’t created for a collection of this size. You’ll quickly notice that to get to box 8028, you’ll have to scroll for a very long time. We have to list every item in order to link to the digitized files, which makes for a looooong list. It’s not ideal, but it’s what we’re working with right now. (The IU Digital Library staff have been wonderful helping set us up!) In the future, I think the GLOVE could have it’s own website. That would give us more flexibility to link between tribes, add subject terms, sort by categories, or add other forms of tagging.

Please let us know if you have any comments or questions about the Great Lakes-Ohio Valley Ethnohistory Collection. As the librarian/archivist in charge of these collections, I’m here to help you. So let me know!


More about IMLS

The Institute of Museum and Library Services is the primary source of federal support for the nation’s libraries and museums. We advance, support, and empower America’s museums, libraries, and related organizations through grantmaking, research, and policy development. Our vision is a nation where museums and libraries work together to transform the lives of individuals and communities. To learn more, visit www.imls.gov and follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

(The views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this blog post do not necessarily represent those of the Institute of Museum and Library Services.)

Women at Work

The acknowledgements of women working in archaeology has notably flourished in recent memory, but who were the pioneering American women of our profession? For over a century, women have taken on many roles in archaeology with varying levels of professional education and have been successful in contributing to the field. Whether toiling over lab work or excavating great features, these archaeologists have not always been given proper recognition for their work. This session highlights the contributions of several female archaeologists from across the Midwest and brings to light the often undervalued contributions of those who helped make archaeology what it is today. By telling these stories we hope to starts a conversation about the politics of recognition, and inspire others to provide a more complete understanding of women’s influence in shaping archaeology and the Midwest.

Abstract for “Women at Work: Acknowledging Women’s Legacy in Archaeology”

My inquiry into Midwestern female archaeologists began last year when the Indiana Historical Bureau sent a call for papers for their spring conference Hoosier Women at Work in the Sciences. Those of us working at the Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology (GBL) got pretty excited. We wanted to find a way to participate because we knew that the records we use daily were often written by women. Women made a huge impact on the work accomplished here at the GBL. Thus began our journey…

After submitting my proposal for the conference and getting accepted, I began researching three particular women with strong ties to the collections of the GBL: Ida Black, wife of our namesake Glenn Black; Frances Martin, an aprofessional archaeologist who worked alongside Glenn at archaeology sites for years; and Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin, the maestra who orchestrated the Great Lakes-Ohio Valley Ethnohistory Project. Each woman had differing levels of education, influence, and immersion in their disciplines, but all contributed to growing archaeological and ethnohistorical work in the Midwest.

Ida can be seen in our image collections alongside Glenn at Nowlin Mound in the early 1930s; she was his constant companion throughout their years at Angel Mounds, too. Frances Martin received a college education, but viewed archaeology more as a hobby to enjoy every weekend. Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin held several college degrees and essentially founded the discipline of ethnohistory. Her work and foresight in the 1950s at Indiana University led to the creation of the Great Lakes-Ohio Valley Ethnohistory collection; a documentary assemblage made up of hundreds of primary and secondary documents pertaining to Native American occupancy of the region over three centuries. (It’s what I consider one of the laboratory’s greatest treasures.)

Image of archival boxes for the Great Lakes Ohio Valley Ethnohistory Collection
Boxes from the Great Lakes-Ohio Valley Ethnohistory Collection. (Image by Bailey Foust)

I presented a short talk on these women at the Hoosier Women at Work in Science, Technology, and Medicine in April 2017.

In conjunction to the historical research I was conducting on these women, several coworkers and I utilized the GBL’s image collections to create a photography exhibition showcasing some of the women documented working at past field schools. The online photo exhibit was set up in March 2017.

Black and white image of Frances Martin crouched at Yankeetown site.
Frances Martin at Yankeetown, 1950. (ICO N3383)

We couldn’t just stop there, though.

While researching Ida, Frances, and Erminie, I noticed the lack of readily available information on Midwestern female archaeologists. I found published books about old world, classical female archaeologists (think Greek/Roman/Egyptian), some concerning Southeastern and Southwestern American female archaeologists, but very little concerning the Midwest… (See below for a short bibliography detailing these works.)

That, I thought, was a problem.

Luckily, others I work with thought it was a problem too. Leslie Drane, a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Anthropology at IU, and I coordinated a poster symposium for the 2017 Midwest Archaeological Conference held this past October in Indianapolis. We invited participants from the region to highlight notable women from Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, and Iowa. If we couldn’t find published materials about Midwestern female archaeologists, we were going to write them ourselves!

Nine participants created beautiful, thoughtful posters that can now be viewed on an online poster gallery hosted on the MAC website.

This isn’t the end of our inquiry. Several of us would like to submit our biographies to journals or history magazines in order to broaden our audience. Perhaps some other bigs things are in the works too?! Our work is only just beginning…


A bibliography  of female archaeologists and resources
  • Adams, Amanda. (2010). Ladies of the field: early women archaeologists and their search for adventure. Vancouver: Greystone Books.
  • Allsebrook, M. Nesbit, & Allsebrook, A. (1992). Born to rebel : the life of Harriet Boyd Hawes. Oxford [England]: Oxbow Books .
  • Browman, David L. (2013). Cultural Negotiations: the role of women in the founding of American Archaeology. University of Nebraska Press.
  • Classen, Cheryl. (1994). Women in Archaeology. University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Cohen, G. M., & Joukowsky, M. (2006). Breaking Ground: Pioneering Women Archaeologists. University of Michigan Press.
  • Gacs, Ute, et al. (1989). Women Anthropologists: selected biographies. University of Illinois Press.
  • Kehoe, Alice B. & Emmerichs, Mary Beth. (1999). Assembling the past: studies in the professionalization of archaeology. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
  • Nelson, M. Cecile, Nelson, S. M., & Wylie, A. (1994). Equity issues for women in archaeology. Arlington, VA: American Anthropological Association.
  • Wallach, Janet. (1996). Desert queen: the extraordinary life of Gertrude Bell: adventurer, advisor to kings, ally to Lawrence of Arabia. New York: Doubleday.
  • White, N. Marie, Sullivan, L. P, & Marrinan, R. A. (1999). Grit tempered : early women archaeologists in the southeastern United States. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
  • Zeder, Melinda A. (1997). The American archaeologist: a profile. Walnut Creek, California: AltaMira Press.