Shawnee GLOVE digitized!

Update and troubleshooting help

Big news here in the library and archives! All 30 boxes of Shawnee Tribal History Documents from the Great Lakes-Ohio Valley Ethnohistory (GLOVE) collection have been digitized and are freely available online!

Screenshot of the Archives Online at Indiana University webpage, showing the Shawnee subseries inventory with links to the digitized images.
The GLOVE finding aid on Archives Online – Shawnee subseries (June 2019)

Thanks to the Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma for including us on their Institute for Museum and Library Sciences (IMLS) grant. We were able to partner together to improve accessibility to the archival resources found in our collections by digitization. With their help we hired a part-time worker, Selena McCracken, to digitize more than 12,000 pages of copied historical documents directly relating to the Shawnee experience in the Midwest from the 16th to 19th centuries.

GLOVE History

If you’re unfamiliar with the Great Lakes-Ohio Valley Ethnohistory project, let me give you a quick rundown. The US Justice Department hired a team of researchers at Indiana University, headed by Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin, to research land use and occupancy of the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley regions (think the Midwest) for the Indian Claims Commission cases. Her small team spent over a decade in the 1950s and 1960s visiting any and all archives, libraries, and museums to find written information. They copied only those relevant documents (be they diary entries, letters, published books, etc.) and brought them back to IU, where they were organized by tribal group and then chronologically within each tribal group. These photocopies were used as references when compiling final ethnohistory reports submitted to the Justice Department as legal evidence. Normally, researchers wouldn’t keep their research notes after the final report has been written – but we’re SO THANKFUL these were kept.

Yes, we essentially have a collection of incomplete facsimiles, but what’s important is that they’re TOGETHER in ONE SPACE as a SINGLE COLLECTION. That’s what a collection is: objects particularly selected and brought together. Imagine being a researcher and trying to recreate this collection. Perhaps it would be easier with the Internet, but you’d still spend a lot of time searching… Secondly, our patrons want access. It’s really difficult to take a whole week to visit our facility and go through boxes and boxes of documents. It’s a privilege that not everyone has. My job as librarian and archivist is to make the materials accessible to those people. Digitization is our answer.

Accessing the Documents

Now an explanation on how you can access the collection! (With pictures!)

The finding aid, or written inventory, is available on Archives Online at Indiana University, in the Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin Archives.

Screenshot of the Archives Online webpage header
Archives Online header (June 2019)

The collection is divided into multiple series (microfilm, maps, reports, etc.) but the Shawnee documents are found within the Tribal History Document Series.

You can click on “Shawnee” in the menu on the left to pull up the subseries.

Screenshot of the menu on the left side of the GLOVE finding aid webpage
The menu along the left side, highlighting the Shawnee option.

Alternatively, you can use the search box in the left side menu to search the citations found on the finding aid. Unfortunately, you cannot use the search box to search within the digitized documents.

When you arrive on the Shawnee page, you’ll see links to the three federally recognized tribes at the top. We’ve been able to achieve more with the support and guidance of these partners. I hope that it also contextualizes these documents by showing researchers that the Shawnee people are still around and very active.

Screenshot of the top of the Shawnee content page.
(June 2019)

Beneath is the actual inventory of Shawnee boxes. Feel free to use CTRL+F to search the text on the webpage. I find it’s the quickest way to locate particular boxes or years.

Screenshot of the beginning of the Shawnee box inventory. It begins with Box 8001, Folder 01, Item 001.
(June 2019)

Every item has a bibliographic citation and 1 or 2 links.

  • “View item(s)” is the digitized document from our collections.
  • “Full text…” is where our coder was able to find the original document fully digitized online. You can find the pages that precede or follow our document!
Screenshot after clicking "View item(s)" when a smaller window appears showcasing the digitized document.
The digitized document shows up when you click a “View item(s)” link (June 2019)

Troubleshooting…

If you find that our digitized image doesn’t pop up, check your browser’s security settings. Several researchers have found that they must turn off pop-up blockers and other security features before the item shows up.

In Firefox:

  • Click the lock symbol next in the left side of the URL box
  • Click “connection”
  • Click “disable protection for now”
Screenshot of the Firefox browser's URL box. the lock symbol has been clicked deploying a window declaring the "connection is not secure."
Firefox troubleshooting: click the lock to the left in the URL box

In Google Chrome:

  • Click the shield symbol found at the right side of the URL box
  • Click “load unsafe script”
Screenshot of the google Chrome browser's URL box. the shield symbol has been clicked deploying a window declaring "insecure content blocked."
Chrome troubleshooting: click the shield to the right in the URL box

Next steps

Making 12,414 pages of documents relating to the Shawnee experience is only the first step.

Our goal is to get the entirety of the Tribal History Document Series digitized. It will take time, but we’re chipping away at it.

Next we need to make the documents we’ve digitized text-searchable. As I mentioned above, you can’t search within the digitized documents, but that’s a useful feature and would be ideal for researchers. It would allow for even greater accessibility because screen reading software cannot “read” these pages yet.

There are a few drawbacks to using the Archives Online platform, namely that it wasn’t created for a collection of this size. You’ll quickly notice that to get to box 8028, you’ll have to scroll for a very long time. We have to list every item in order to link to the digitized files, which makes for a looooong list. It’s not ideal, but it’s what we’re working with right now. (The IU Digital Library staff have been wonderful helping set us up!) In the future, I think the GLOVE could have it’s own website. That would give us more flexibility to link between tribes, add subject terms, sort by categories, or add other forms of tagging.

Please let us know if you have any comments or questions about the Great Lakes-Ohio Valley Ethnohistory Collection. As the librarian/archivist in charge of these collections, I’m here to help you. So let me know!


More about IMLS

The Institute of Museum and Library Services is the primary source of federal support for the nation’s libraries and museums. We advance, support, and empower America’s museums, libraries, and related organizations through grantmaking, research, and policy development. Our vision is a nation where museums and libraries work together to transform the lives of individuals and communities. To learn more, visit www.imls.gov and follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

(The views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this blog post do not necessarily represent those of the Institute of Museum and Library Services.)

The GBL’s Historic Image Collection: August 2015 – January 2019

by Bailey Foust

I began at the GBL as a work-study student starting my senior year at IU, in fall of 2015. I worked with Alex Elliott on the Type Collection Drawers for my first few weeks before moving onto the Historic Image Collection. At the time my only knowledge of Angel Mounds was that it was near Evansville and that my paternal grandparents took my brother on a trip there without me. Now the majority of what I know comes from working with images of the site. Before I began working with the Historic Image Collection, the media room had the aroma of an open jar of pickles, called vinegar syndrome, it was an evident clue that the lab’s film was deteriorating.

Alex Elliott and Bailey Foust in front of Mound A at Angel Mounds State Historic Site, during the August 2017 solar eclipse. Photo by Corwin A. Deckard.
September 2015 to August 2016

I started with the slide collection, which was housed between two slide cabinets, one equipped with a light box.  Currently there are 7,117 slides in the inventory. I would remove slides by row, record their information, and assign a catalog number. I then digitized the slides, (the scanner model I used was Epson Perfection v700 photo). Eventually the slides were removed from their hangers and placed in archival boxes (there are 35 in total). The slide collection as a whole contains a fair amount of duplication of negatives and Polaroids; it also contains more candid images from digs than the negative collection, which often focus on documenting excavation features.

August 2016 – February 2018

I moved on to the 7,200 negatives; they were originally housed in two filing cabinets with old envelopes. Opening these drawers would release a powerful odor of vinegar syndrome.

The negative inventory was started by Colin Gliniecki, while I worked on the slides, but was completed by me as Colin moved onto other projects.  I started the negative digitization by scanning the 4” x 5” negatives that are in good condition, this is a total of 2,977 negatives. I rehoused the negatives to new envelopes as I scanned them, rewriting the caption as best I could. Since scanning has downtime, I continued writing captions for new envelopes. Eventually I started placing the rehoused negatives in archival boxes. As more negatives went in archival boxes, they were removed from the filing cabinet and placed on shelving in the closet. The vinegar syndrome smell lessened once the negatives had new envelopes and were in archival boxes.

After scanning the 4” x 5”s, Jennifer St. Germain purchased an anti-newton ring glass dry mounting so the approximately 4,500 negatives of other sizes could be scanned. To uses this I had to tape the corners of each negative to the glass. This was more time consuming, as I couldn’t prep the next negative until scanning was complete.

The dry mounting station with anti-newton ring glass used for negative digitization.

A note on condition: Many of the GBL’s negatives are in fine condition but others have experienced deterioration called channeling.

N1668 “A.M. Office Bldgs 10-3-39”. This digitized image of the WPA office buildings shows negative deterioration.

It starts as warping and bubbles in the negative but eventually leads to the emulsion and plastic support separating.

Image Collections Online

Once a sizable number of images had been digitized, Jen worked with IU Digital Libraries to create the GBL’s Image Collections Online Site (ICO). ICO is photo cataloging application that allows us to store and share the GBL’s images.

Directory

One of my roadblocks was that I didn’t have an overall sense of people’s names. They often appear as shorthand, a nickname, or just the surname; so it wasn’t always apparent to me that a name was a name. For example “F.M.S.” is Frank Meryl Setzler and “West” is La Mont West. In order to have accurate and consistent information, I started a list of people’s names. This led me to create a directory of persons for Angel Mounds Field Schools 1945-1962. The directory puts together some basic information, a portrait, full name, institution and class during attendance. To help with this task, I looked though the Angel Mounds Associated documents and field school applications.

Prints

I suspect that the core print collection was started by Glenn Black, as some of the captions are followed by his initials. The prints are mounted on cards typed with captions, unfortunately the cards are warped. These prints started out in wooden drawers, but were moved to archival boxes.  These boxes have been organized by unit (in the case of Angel Mounds), county (if from Indiana), and state. The number on the card, should in theory, accurately link to the negative (which is now, hopefully, digitized).

With summer ending and the humidity lowering, it was finally time to package the slide and negative boxes for the freezer. In total I packaged 112 boxes. After creating and applying labels to the boxes, they were wrapped in vapor proof barrier.

Tape was applied over all the seams, and an additional label was placed on the barrier exterior. It then went into a bag with a humidity indicator that was sealed and taped up. The difference between packaging slides and negatives, is slides were bagged in groups of 4 and negatives as singles.

Once the freezer was full, Jen and I plugged it in and turned on, it made a happy beeping- I thought it sounded celebratory.

Freezer partially filled with slide and negative boxes.
Here are a few of my favorite images:
Being as smitten as I am by Frances Martin, I have to include a photo of her. This image was digitized from a print (with no negative), and shows William Rude and Frances Martin labeling artifacts in the lab building at Angel Mounds.
This slide (S1698) shows Lilly Marchant, Glenn Black, and Bettye Broyle during the 1954 Angel Mounds field school. I’ve always loved the way this kodachrome slide captures the fire.
This slide (S1573) shows Ida Black and William L. Rude in a canoe at Angel Mounds during the spring flood of 1945. Per the caption, it was taken from the eastern edge of the village with the camera oriented northeast toward the administration area.
A slide (S2046) capturing an “evening storm” during 1959 over lab building at Angel Mounds.
One of my unexpected finds was a negative (N9282) showing Glenn’s paternal Grandparents. The Caption reads: “Personal Glenn A. Black My father’s father and mother. Originals owned by Bert White of Brownsburg, Ind.”
This negative (N2772) shows John Longbons, Elizabeth Brockschlager, and Ann Leist “figuring contours” for S11D during 1951 Angel Mounds field school.