Fighting Fungus – Know Your Enemy

by April K. Sievert, GBL Director

Hot and rainy summers are certainly hard on the climate within our repository! In order to preserve the artifacts collected 80 years ago by Glenn A. Black at the Angel Mounds site, we need to contend with environmentally-related dangers to both staff and stuff. One of these is mold, tiny fungal bodies and spores that feed off organic materials. Molds love to grow where its dark and moist, and the inside of a box of archaeological bone may be ideal places under rising heat and humidity. Normally, as GBL Director, I don’t get the chance to get down and dirty, so I was happy to be able to arm myself with protective gear and start to figure out what we are dealing with .

April Sievert starting some mold research

We discovered serious mold problems at around the same time that we received news that we were awarded funding for Curating Angel Mounds, through the Save America’s Treasures program of the National Park Service, administered by the Institute for Museum and Library Services (IMLS). The first task was to have an air quality test done. Results of this test, which is facilitated by IU’s Environmental Health and Safety Department, shows higher levels of a common mold family—Aspergillus/Penicillium— in the air in our Angel Mounds Repository. The report indicates mold likely originating from within the room itself. This mold was likely being generated by moldy materials, most likely the acidic brown paper bags used for artifacts, some of which show both water damage and signs of mold (molds love acidic materials).

Test results on mold identified in the air the Angel Curation room

Mold produces spores from tiny branching filaments called hyphae. The mold can be inactive (dried spores that look like dust and can remain dormant for years) or active, meaning that the hyphae are happily making new spores. The hyphae are like tiny straws that suck water out of the substrate (whatever the mold is growing on) so that they can grow and make more spores. Active mold presents as smeary, fluffy, or hairy patches on surfaces. Molds grow well at temperatures between 60-90° F and RH above 65%. We deployed a large noisy air scrubber to remove the spores from the air, and extra dehumidifiers to bring the humidity down.

There are two quite different kinds of mold on the bags and artifacts from Angel Mounds that are visible with the naked eye. One presents as a white deposit adhering to a scratch on the bone surface.

White deposits in crevice on faunal bone

The network of hyphae and spores become visible under high-power magnification using the polarizing filter on our metallurgical microscope. White deposits on at 500x magnification show a blurry mass of filaments the represent actively growing mold.

White mold hyphae

The white mold is consistent with the Aspergillus/Penicillium group and appears to like cuts or crevices in the bone cortex. Softer spongier bone provides easily accessible nutrients for the fungus. A very different brown mold that flourishes on a small proportion of bags shows up as fuzzy dots.

Bag fragment from 1939 showing brown active mold

Bones within these bags sport dense patches of hyphae with dark brown spores. After initial cleaning, the location still had a tenacious colony of brown spores.

Brown mold with well-developed fruiting bodies and spores (500x magnification)
Mold colony after one cleaning with alcohol (500x magnification)

The clearly-seen spores are about 10 microns long and 6 microns wide, appear iridescent under polarized light, and are quite lovely. We’ll be sending samples of these beauties to a lab for more precise identification. So, stay tuned for more on mold, and the conservation treatment we are using!

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Importance of the Petrous Temporal Bone

by Anne Hittson

Hello! My name is Anne and I have been a collections assistant on the rehousing of Angel Mounds since June 2019.

Anne in her hometown of Anchorage, Alaska in July 2019

I graduated with a BFA in Sculpture from Rhode Island School of Design in June 2018. My studio practice and academic study explores the interrelations of objects—ancient and contemporary, and language—written, spoken, and visual. I believe the study of visual communication of and through art and artifacts offer an incredible understanding of human development and culture. I have always asked: “What can these objects tell us?” for the making of objects communicate so differently than spoken or written language.

I am studying to be a Speech Pathologist. I wish to further explore and understand the different layers of how spoken and written language operates in our brain, the developmental stages we go through in exercising it, and what happens in our brain when we do not exercise it. I am excited to learn about the plasticity of our brain, because it is, figuratively and literally, one of the most flexible and softest organs in the body.

While working on the rehousing of Angel Mounds project, I have grown accustomed to handling and learning about faunal bones, and have been most interested in one of the densest bones in the body, which is so near to the soft brain that it is almost poetic: the petrous temporal bone of the white-tailed deer.

Petrous part of temporal bone fragment of white-tailed deer

The petrous temporal bone is wedge-shaped and roughly has a diameter of a quarter. It is technically a part of the temporal bone which is situated on either side of the skull that houses the structure that forms the middle and inner ear.

As a visual artist, I was drawn to its organically odd shape and my ignorance of understanding its anatomy. There are shallow depressions that spiral into deep cavities, small pockets of air that appear delicately thin, but the bone is indeed incredibly hard. Each one I come across is slightly different in length, width and texture of surface – some are ribbed, while others appear smooth and polished. I deeply appreciated learning of the delicate labyrinth that this small bone held within it.

Within the petrous part, sound waves are transmitted from air to the fluid-filled cochlea or inner ear. Quite generally, they do so as vibrations through canals, cavities and along auditory nerves in the brain that all work harmoniously to activate our registry of sound.

Petrous bone still attached to temporal bone of white-tailed deer

Furthermore, it is the density of the petrous bone that makes itself unique to scientists and researchers in DNA studies. Compared to other bones, DNA of the petrous bone is not easily degradable through soil and wear and because of the prolonged decay of bone induced by its density, it is one of the most widely used sites to study DNA.

I regularly come across petrous bones while working on the rehousing of Angel Mounds. It is oddly satisfying to spot them with their peculiar shapes and textures and with so many found at the site of excavation, it is exciting to think of the possibility of using them for DNA research. If conducted, this research could tell us more than what we can see with our eyes and would be an enormous and exciting investigation of faunal life at Angel Mounds.

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Integrating the Mixed Materials of the Angel Mounds Collection

by Ryan Edward Peterson

Ryan with some of the rehoused Angel collection

Hello everyone! My name is Ryan Peterson. I am a member of the crew that has been working hard all summer on the Angel Mounds rehousing project here at the Glenn Black Lab. As a member of the “Saving America’s Treasures” (SAT) team I have spent my summer decked out in gloves and a mask rehousing, conserving, and reintegrating the Angel Mounds collection.

I am a second year PhD student at Indiana University. My focus is on Great Lakes archaeology, specializing in the production, procurement, and exchange of native copper on islands and coastlines in the Upper Great Lakes. The isolation of these raw resources spurs me to study the question of how copper from the Upper Great Lakes has been found dispersed in a variety of places, including Angel Mounds. As a Great Lakes archaeologist, the movement of people, especially over large bodies of water, is another important facet of this area of study. This movement links directly with the use and exchange of Native copper throughout the region.

Currently, the rehousing team is working our way through the faunal bones from Angel Mounds. These materials are purposefully being rehoused first, due to the degree of mold that has grown on the materials (in comparison to the rest of the collection). We have a saying at the GBL, “the worst goes first!” We prioritize our rehousing and conservation based on the artifacts that have the greatest need.

As the team goes through bag after bag, and box after box of bone, we continuously find more than just bone in these bags. In these bags, along with the bone, we find a mix of many other materials, such as pottery, lithics (stone), wood, and other materials that were mistaken for bone when the original WPA workers roughly sorted the artifacts. As the original WPA workers learned how to identify one artifact from another, they slowly became more efficient at distinguishing artifacts. This was a trend noticed as the rehousing team at first found a large amount of mixed materials in the early boxes of bone, but the amount of mixed materials slowly tapered down as the experience of the WPA workers went up.

Identifying these mixed materials can be quite a challenge to the untrained observer. When attempting to distinguish these materials from one another, two of the biggest clues are the texture and weight of the artifacts. Wooden artifacts are light in weight and contain a grain-like structure. Lithics, in contrast, are heavier than the average bone, but their smooth surface can be deceiving when compared to long bone fragments. Ceramics at Angel Mounds are tempered with shell (temper is added into the clay and helps strengthen the pottery during firing). This shell tempering is very distinctive and can help identify an artifact as ceramic even if its shape is deceiving. It is common to find ceramics formed into not only vessels, but also effigy figures. Many of these figures, especially when broken, can bear a shocking resemblance in shape to bone.

After these artifacts are pulled from their incorrect bags, the mixed materials are removed, labeled, and placed aside. The rehousing team then goes through the Angel Mounds catalog system to determine where other materials from the section that the original bone was in are located in the Angel Collection. These artifacts are then organized by their new location and placed in what should have been their correct location. As these artifacts are placed into their temporary new location, we often rediscover new things in the multitude of boxes that are being opened. This process is referred to as reintegration. The reintegration of these materials into the larger Angel Collection as a whole allows for a more accurate curation and management of materials, along with creating the potential for more accurate collections-based research.

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Unpacking the Animal Life of Angel Mounds

by Amanda Burtt

Hello All! My name is Amanda Burtt and I am one of the newest members of the IMLS funded Curating Angel project that is underway right now. My job as Associate Curator for the rehousing project includes helping lead a team of graduate and undergraduate students in the many steps involved in transferring the Angel Mounds archaeological collections from their original storing containers to archival grade curation bags and boxes.

In addition to working for the Glenn A. Black Laboratory on the Angel project, I am also a PhD candidate in the Anthropology Department here at Indiana University. I am an archaeologist with a specialization in zooarchaeology. Zooarchaeologists analyze animal remains (bones, teeth, shells, fur, etc.) from archaeological sites to better understand ways that people interacted with animals in the past, which can vary greatly, from food resource to companion to deity. My dissertation research investigates the diets of domestic dogs in Precontact North America. I am able to examine dog diets by employing Dental Microwear Texture Analysis (DMTA), which evaluates the surface of a tooth to determine what kinds of food textures a dog is accessing. This method can determine if dogs are heavily processing bone for nutrition, a sign of food stress. This method has allowed me to quantify when dogs are allowed access to flesh or cooked foods or are utilizing lower quality foodstuff (i.e. bones).

Amanda smiling toward camera, sitting in front of computer screens depicting graphic data
Amanda Burtt at Vanderbilt University’s Dietary Reconstruction and Ecological Assessments of Mammals Laboratory, dog tooth scan in the back. (2018)

Lucky for me, the Angel curation project began with re-housing the fauna remains recovered from Angel Mounds. Which means I get to spend my work days opening bags (some haven’t been opened since their original bagging in the 1940’s) and seeing the remains of animals that shared the landscape with Indigenous communities that occupied Angel Mounds hundreds of years ago. My research interests extend beyond dogs; I am also interested in ways that humans in the past interacted with carnivores more broadly. One of the fascinating things I have observed while rehousing fauna remains is the abundance of raccoons (scientific name Procyon lotor) in the Angel Mounds assemblage. Since my first day working with the Angel Mounds fauna, I noticed evidence of raccoons from all parts of the skeleton, including teeth, skulls, long bones, and even the baculum (which is a bone found in the penis of many placental mammals).

Raccoon skull resting in gloved palm
The cranium of a raccoon (Procyon lotor), recovered from the Angel Mounds site during excavations in the 1940’s and being rehoused as part of the Curating Angel project. (2019)

The mandible (lower portion of the skull) is a bone that is both recognizable and dense enough to survive the deposition and excavation processes. We have found many mandibles belonging to raccoons and the following image shows two (circled in the picture). Of interesting note, the left mandible exhibits extreme dental wear when compared to the one on the right. You will notice that the molars of the left raccoon appear flat while the mandible on the right still has prominent cusps. Also, both mandibles are from the right side meaning there are at least two raccoons represented in this subsample. This is a quantification method that zooarchaeologists use called MNI (minimum number of individuals).

Artifact tray filled with bone material, jaw bones are circled
Two raccoon mandibles. (2019)

Like dogs, raccoons also belong to the taxonomic order Carnivora. Though also like dogs, raccoons tend to be omnivorous as they will seek out food resources that are available and usually do not pass up the opportunity for a meal. We have seen many worn molars from raccoons while rehousing the Angel fauna, which has me wondering why. My current theory is that the residents of Angel Mounds were keeping the predator population in check and raccoons were able to survive well into adulthood resulting in elder raccoons with advanced worn teeth. This theory is among many that my coworkers and I hypothesize while working side by side rehousing animal bones. Though there is evidence of predators among the assemblage, including black bears and bobcats, their remains do not compare to the amount of raccoons we are finding. We will keep thinking on theories and keep you posted!

More About IMLS

The Institute of Museum and Library Services is the primary source of federal support for the nation’s libraries and museums. We advance, support, and empower America’s museums, libraries, and related organizations through grantmaking, research, and policy development. Our vision is a nation where museums and libraries work together to transform the lives of individuals and communities. To learn more, visit www.imls.gov and follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

(The views, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this blog post do not necessarily represent those of the Institute of Museum and Library Services.)

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Angel Rehousing Project, Part 5

Part 5 of Amanda’s Angel Rehousing Project blog series

by Amanda Pavot

I have returned with news!

First, this is going to be my last blog post of the semester. However(!), the current plan is to continue to make blog posts about the project as it goes on. It’s just going to be different people writing. Maybe we’ll get more perspectives other than mine! Keep checking the blog for more updates!

More importantly, the Rehousing has started! It’s being divided into a couple of phases, those phases being “sort out the moldy bone boxes” and then “do everything else.”

~Issues in Curation~

Remember last post when I said that our NAGPRA team was pulling out AFOs and going through faunal remains to ensure that all sacred items and human remains are accounted for? Also, remember waaay back when I said that some of the boxes of artifacts have mold in them?

After opening boxes that had faunal remains in order to go through them, many of those boxes were found to have mold in them. Before our NAGPRA team can sort through those bones, they need to be cleaned up and rehoused into temporary bags and boxes. Only then can they be sorted through. Because it’s Very Important to get this done, cleaning up the moldy bone boxes is the priority right now. So here’s how it works:

First, we put on our respirators and nitrile gloves. That’s very important. Then we pull one of the moldy boxes. We take out one of the bags and look up the information written on the bag to find it in our digital database. Then we take the bones out of the bag, count them, vacuum off any mold (using a special attachment on the vacuum with the HEPA filter, which I think is cooler than it probably really is. The mold just comes right off, though!), and then weigh them. We get a new, archival-quality bag, write the information from the old bag onto the new one along with quantity and weight, and put the bones into the new bag. We also update the information in the database –for example, sometimes the number of artifacts in the bags and the number the database says we should have in those bags are different. Put the bag into a new box, move on to the next bag!

I left out a lot of the nitty-gritty details, but that’s basically how it works. We’re working in teams of two, one on a laptop with the database and one on the vacuum. When we finally finish all of the moldy bones, we’ll move on to the rest of the bulk collection. We’ll be training more people soon, and with more people we’ll be able to plow right through these boxes this summer!

I want to thank everyone who’s read these posts and has followed along so far. So: thank you! I’m looking forward to where this project is headed, and I hope you all are interested in it, too. I may be making some posts in the future, but, until then, have a great summer!


In September 2018, the GBL was awarded a Save America’s Treasures grant to rehabilitate and rehouse about 2.8 million artifacts from Angel Mounds over the next 3 years. These grants are administered by the National Park Service in partnership with the Institute of Museum and Library Services.

This “Curating Angel” project will allow us to provide safe, long-term preservation of the artifacts and associated documentation from archaeological work at Angel Mounds and make these collections more accessible for research and education.

More about IMLS

The Institute of Museum and Library Services is the primary source of federal support for the nation’s libraries and museums. We advance, support, and empower America’s museums, libraries, and related organizations through grantmaking, research, and policy development. Our vision is a nation where museums and libraries work together to transform the lives of individuals and communities. To learn more, visit www.imls.gov and follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

(The views, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this blog post do not necessarily represent those of the Institute of Museum and Library Services.)

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Angel Rehousing Project, Part 4

Amanda’s 4th blog about the ongoing Angel Rehousing project

by Amanda Pavot

Time for another Angel Update!

I’m still working on inventorying the boxes of the Type Collection. At first, I worked on a box of mostly projectile points, especially small triangular points. Then I worked on an especially heavy box of groundstone, which includes items like stones they used as hammers and celts (stone axes). Now I’m working on a box of worked bone, which includes bone tools and pins. One neat thing about working in a museum like this is the variety of interesting artifacts you get to see! Holding an object that was carved into by a person hundreds of years ago can really make you feel things.

There are a lot of other projects connected to this Angel Rehousing project. One of these is the very important job of repatriating artifacts and human remains. The Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) is a law that, among other things, sets the procedure of returning certain Native American artifacts to their related communities. It also reflects changes in thought, specifically how archaeologists in the early 20th century think in terms of family connections to communities of Native Americans. Excavations at Angel Mounds began in the early-to-mid 20th Century, so human remains and objects associated with burials ended up in the Glenn Black’s collection.

What we call the “NAGPRA Team” has already been working on sorting out the human remains and AFOs (Associated Funerary Objects, or objects buried with the deceased) to be repatriated. There is an original list of AFOs that is used to find the artifacts in the collection that were associated with burials. Each object is pulled from the bulk collection and carefully documented; they are measured, weighed, and identified and described in more detail than what was done previously. An object noted in the original logs as simply “animal bone” will now have more pertinent information listed in the database. The Angel Rehousing project will end up playing an important role in this as well.

While AFOs have already been pulled from the bulk collection, sometimes, despite our best efforts, objects can be missed. As we sort through each individual artifact to be rehoused, we can look them up in the database where it will say if it is an AFO or not. Any found AFOs can then be separated out to be repatriated. In other words, the rehousing gives us the chance to go through every artifact to ensure no AFOs are missed.

There’s also the rehousing of the faunal artifacts, aka all the animal bones. A lot of times animal remains were buried with humans, or animal carcasses were discarded near burials. While most of the human remains have already been separated from the rest of the artifacts, it can be very difficult to identify small bone fragments, and some human remains have been found mixed up with animal remains. As we rehouse faunal artifacts, we will be going through the bones to double-check that no human remains are left behind, ensuring that, if any are found, they can be treated with the respect they deserve and be repatriated.

I’ll end this post with exciting news; rehousing starts this week! Next time, I’ll be back with more specifics about that!


In September 2018, the GBL was awarded a Save America’s Treasures grant to rehabilitate and rehouse about 2.8 million artifacts from Angel Mounds over the next 3 years. These grants are administered by the National Park Service in partnership with the Institute of Museum and Library Services.

This “Curating Angel” project will allow us to provide safe, long-term preservation of the artifacts and associated documentation from archaeological work at Angel Mounds and make these collections more accessible for research and education.

More about IMLS

The Institute of Museum and Library Services is the primary source of federal support for the nation’s libraries and museums. We advance, support, and empower America’s museums, libraries, and related organizations through grantmaking, research, and policy development. Our vision is a nation where museums and libraries work together to transform the lives of individuals and communities. To learn more, visit www.imls.gov and follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

(The views, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this blog post do not necessarily represent those of the Institute of Museum and Library Services.)

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Spring 2019 Newsletter

From the desk of the Director

Click here to read a message from Director April Sievert.

From the desk of the curator

Click here to read a message from Curator Melody Pope.


conferences

Anne Lacey, Kelsey Grimm, and Bob Wicks at MAC

Kelsey Grimm, librarian for the GBL, hosted a session in April at the 2019 Midwest Archives Conference in Detroit, Michigan. She, Bob Wicks of Miami University, and Anne Lacey of Kansas City, Kansas Public Library, presented “Collaborate and Listen,” in which they described the Wyandotte Heritage Digital Archive. This project, organized by Bob Wicks and hosted by the Wyandotte Nation, will bring together digitized primary source documents from repositories across the continent.

Ph.D. student Molly Mesner presented at the Midwest Archives Conference, alongside Wylie House Museum Director Carey Beam, concerning last summer’s campus archaeology project.

Curator Melody Pope presented research at this year’s Society for American Archaeology conference in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Head over to her ‘From the Desk of the Curator‘ to read more.


Collections news

Cataloging Collections

Malachai Darling has been continuing the book cataloging and completed the Jonathan Reyman collection, a set of books donated by the former curator of anthropology at the Illinois State Museum. Those can be found on our LibraryThing catalog.

Cleaning the Lilly Map

The Lilly Map

Sheree Sievert, a volunteer, has been cleaning the Eli Lilly map. It should be completed very soon, and will be on display in the Mather’s Museums’s fall exhibit, “800 Seasons.”

Wylie House Excavation

Follow our work at the Wylie House on our blog!

Save America’s Treasures Grant

In September 2018, the GBL was awarded a Save America’s Treasures grant to rehabilitate and rehouse about 2.8 million artifacts from Angel Mounds over the next 3 years. These grants are administered by the National Park Service in partnership with the Institute of Museum and Library Services. The “Curating Angel” project will allow us to provide safe, long-term preservation of the artifacts and associated documentation from archaeological work at Angel Mounds and make these collections more accessible for research and education.

Amanda Pavot in the Angel Room

As the project gets underway, collections assistant Amanda Pavot is posting weekly updates on our blog. Click here to follow along!

More about IMLS: The Institute of Museum and Library Services is the primary source of federal support for the nation’s libraries and museums. We advance, support, and empower America’s museums, libraries, and related organizations through grantmaking, research, and policy development. Our vision is a nation where museums and libraries work together to transform the lives of individuals and communities. Follow IMLS on Facebook and Twitter!


Outreach news

Stephanie Holman, children’s librarian at the Monroe County Public Library, wrote and performed a story of Angel Mounds with support from the Indiana Historical Society and Storytelling Arts of Indiana. She debuted “Baskets of Dirt: the building, excavation, and interpretation of Angel Mounds” in early March at the History Center in Indianapolis. Look for more performances around the state in the coming year!

Part of the GBL’s “Postcards from the Past” activity

Lotus Blossoms was another absolutely treat this year! The GBL hosted a table with the activity “Postcards from the Past,” where students could identify artifacts found in the state of Indiana and try writing a postcard on the back. Thanks to everyone who came out to see us at Fairfield Elementary!

Hannah Ballard and Amanda Pavot at the Powwow

The GBL had a table at Indiana University’s 8th Annual Traditional Powwow on April 6th.


Exhibit News

Out With the Old: Hats of Archaeology”

Produced in conjunction with the Mathers Museum of World Cultures 2018 exhibit “Heads and Tales,” our exhibit “Hats of Archaeology” takes a look at the various head fashions used in Indiana archaeology throughout the last century. The hats may not have been chosen explicitly to make a statement, but by looking at these photographs from our collection, we can get a sense of how people thought about clothing throughout the last century. 

The exhibit closed in Spring 2019.

IHS Partnership: You Are There 1939

Throughout the past spring and fall, researchers from the Indiana Historical Society have been extensively using the archives for their exhibit You Are There 1939: Exploring Angel Mounds. Danny Gonzales and Dan Shockley visited the facility and were in constant communication with the GBL staff while preparing the exhibit. Uniquely, the “You Are There…” exhibits contain a section allowing visitors to simulate stepping back into the past by talking and interacting with actors; in this case you can talk to Glenn and Ida Black, William Rude, and other WPA workers at Angel Mounds. GBL staff members April Sievert, Melody Pope, and Kelsey Grimm spent a day teaching the “YAT” actors about Angel Mounds and the people of the WPA project. “You Are There 1939” discusses the history of the Angel Mounds Site from Mississippian occupation to today. The exhibit will be on display until August 2020 in Indianapolis at the Eugene and Marilyn Glick Indiana History Center.

The new “Images from the WPA-era: Angel Mounds in 1939” exhibit in the GBL lobby

In With the New: “Images from the WPA-era: Angel Mounds in 1939”

In partnership with the Indiana Historical Society, the Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology provided images, artifacts, and other primary sources to the development of the IHS exhibit You Are There 1939. An image exhibit was developed in the lobby of the GBL to showcase more of the historic images from 1939 Angel Mounds. The photos highlight some of the earliest, formalized archaeology conducted in the state of Indiana.

The exhibit opened in March 2019.


volunteer and student appreciation

           Collections: Hannah Ballard, Preet Gill, and Amanda Pavot

           Library: Malachai Darling, Sheree Sievert, and Ethan Shepherd

           Programming: Hannah Rea

Thank you to all who gave their time this semester!


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From the Desk of the Curator

From the desk of the curator

April 25, 2019

This winter and spring saw a flurry of activity on the lower level of the lab, including several upgrades to accommodate the work we will be doing to rehouse the Angel Mounds collections. With support from the Provost’s Office and the Office of the Vice President for Research, new electrical circuits were installed and a new air scrubber and additional dehumidifiers were purchased.  Rehousing the Angel Mounds Collection and moving the collections to ALF3 will be the focus of much of our work over the next three years.  The curation team has been doing extensive background research to understand how the collection was organized, assembling documents to aid in rehousing, building out databases, purchasing supplies, and conducting pilot rehousing test runs to develop work flows.  Collections assistant and Underwater Archaeology student Amanda Pavot has been writing blog posts on the pre-project work for a museum practicum project. You can find Amanda’s posts at The Dirt, the GBL’s blog. Blogs on the Rehousing Angel Mounds Project will continue over the duration of the project, so be sure to follow the project on our website and social media. Over the winter, the curation staff also processed three loans to IUPUI, two in partnership with Hoosier National Forest.  Researchers and students affiliated with IUPUI will work on collections to complete reports for the 2013 Angel Mounds field school, a pioneer homestead on HNF land, and will complete work on parts of the Rock House Hollow collection for a HNF NAGPRA request.

The GBL collections staff participated in several educational events and outreach activities. Professor Susan Alt’s Midwest Archaeology students were able to work with four collections over the course of the semester for hands-on-learning.  We also provided artifacts, images and consulting for the Indiana Historical Society exhibit, You Are There, 1939 Excavating Angel Mounds exhibit that opened in March 2019. Various staff members participated in the 2019 IU Powwow, Lotus Blossoms, and School of Informatics, Computing and Engineering Internship Fair; and conducted tours of our facility for Anthropology, SPEA, and Underwater Archaeology program classes.

Members of GBL staff with visiting educators Scott Bauserman and Rick Doss

Scott Bauserman, with the Westlane Middle School in Indianapolis, brought down a large artifact collection owned by the Metropolitan School District of Washington Township.  Our staff provided assistance to rebox the collections for its safe transport back to Indianapolis. 

I used the Erminie Wheeler-Voegelin Archives personal papers of Glenn Black and Eli Lilly to research the early archaeology of Glenn Black and Eli Lilly at Angel Mounds for a paper presented at the 84th Annual Meeting of the Society for American Archaeology.  You can access information about the symposia presentations here.

Melody Pope, Curator


The Angel Rehousing project is made possible in part by the support of
the Institute of Museum and Library Services. In September 2018, the GBL received a Save America’s Treasures grant to rehabilitate and rehouse about 2.8 million artifacts from Angel Mounds over the next 3 years. These grants are administered by the National Park Service in partnership with IMLS.

MORE ABOUT IMLS

The Institute of Museum and Library Services is the primary source of federal support for the nation’s libraries and museums. We advance, support, and empower America’s museums, libraries, and related organizations through grantmaking, research, and policy development. Our vision is a nation where museums and libraries work together to transform the lives of individuals and communities. To learn more, visit www.imls.gov and follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

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From the Desk of the Director

From the desk of the director

April 25, 2019

Panorama of display area in the new Shawnee Tribe Cultural Center
Jayne-Leigh Thomas

Early 2019 brought a trip to Miami, Oklahoma, with Dr. Jayne-Leigh Thomas, Director of IU’s Office of the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). We attended the Miami Winter Gathering and enjoyed the hospitality and fabulous food that the Miami provide, heard their winter stories, and got to do some stomp dance.

Ben Barnes and Ft. Ancient pottery

We also visited the sparkling-new Shawnee Tribe Cultural Center, and were greeted and shown around by Ben Barnes, Second Chief. The current exhibits feature displays of pottery from the Ohio Valley and chronicle the Shawnee’s journey to recapture ceramic art, based on archaeological prototypes. The have a slick interactive display that allows the visitor to look at different sherds under a microscope, and display the image of clay paste and temper on a large screen for comparing different pottery construction techniques. I was covetous.

Spring 2019 also saw additions to the community of scholars working on Angel Mounds projects. The office of the Vice President for Research has commenced a new project to add capacity for researching, preserving, interpreting, and promoting Angel Mounds deposits and collections. The project, or Angel Mounds Initiative (AMI), allies and aligns with work done through GBL, and through IU’s Office of NAGPRA.

Ed Herrmann

Dr. Ed Herrmann, of the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, directs these special projects. He has several years of experience working at Angel Mounds and other Midwestern sites, with expertise in geoarchaeology, remote sensing, and environmental reconstruction in Indiana and far abroad.

Christina Friberg

We also welcome Dr. Christina Friberg, who has joined the AMI as a post-doctoral scholar, having finished her doctoral work on Mississippian lifeways in the greater Cahokia region at University of California-Santa Barbara. Drs. Ed and Christina are working to aggregate all the data generated for Angel Mounds through the decades (a monumental task), build maps using GIS, coordinate the completion of technical reports, and assist where possible with curation efforts.

This all has made the GBL a very exciting and happening place, with repatriation, curation, and dissemination work all going on simultaneously, with Angel Mounds at the center.

April Sievert, Director

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Angel Rehousing Project, Part 3

by Amanda Pavot

Iiiiiitt’s that time again! Another post about the Angel Rehousing Project!

I suppose it’s about time I talk about why this Rehousing project is being done in the first place. Getting artifacts out of their old bags and boxes, and into newer, nicer ones is all well and good, but why are we doing it? The short answer is because we need to update the collection to modern curation standards, but what does that even mean?

The Rehousing is only part of an overall “Curating Angel” project. The big, main part, of course. Organizing associated records, like photographs, reports, and field notes, is also a part of this project. Eventually, most of the collection will be moved to a place that has better climate control. The goal is to update, organize, inventory, and digitize the collection of artifacts for easier access, to promote research. By updating the storage and documentation to modern standards, the collection can be better preserved and shared.

~Issues in Curation!~

A small example of some of the issues we and potential researchers have now:

Let’s say someone is interested in studying a selection of artifacts from the collection, and requests the opportunity to look at them. We go to find the artifacts by using location information from the database; they should be in a certain box. We go to that box only to discover that they aren’t there. They were either A) moved and no one left any notes or documentation saying when or where they were moved, or B) discarded, because in the past people discarded things for almost no reason. It can take a while to track down what happened to the artifacts, if we still have them, and in the meantime the researcher can’t do the research they want to do. Through rehousing and documenting, will have an updated and more accurate collections database and better accessibility.

The Save America’s Treasures Grant is what is making this project possible. You can find out more about the grant in a link below each of these posts. It was given for this project because Angel Mounds is a culturally and historically important site, so the preservation of its collection is vital. I might talk more about that in detail in a later post. But this grant is part of the reason I’m doing these blogs! Since it’s federally funded, it’s important for the public to know how this money is going to be used.

This past week, I’ve continued inventorying one of the Type Collection boxes. Type collections are used more often than the rest of the collection, so for ease of access a lot of the artifacts have already been sorted through and put into archival bags. But it’s been a long journey of “look up each individual artifact in the data base and make sure the label is correct, but also you sometimes have to try and decipher labels you can barely read.” This has also been a bit of a test run to see how long inventorying one box of the bulk type collection might take. If it sounds monotonous or tedious, it’s not a problem (for me, at least) because I like steady work and also sorting stuff.

Before I end this post, I’d like to take a moment to thank everyone who visited that GBL table at the Indiana University Powwow on April 6th! I wasn’t able to stay very long, but we met a lot people and had some good conversations! I had a great time and I’ll definitely be back next year!


In September 2018, the GBL was awarded a Save America’s Treasures grant to rehabilitate and rehouse about 2.8 million artifacts from Angel Mounds over the next 3 years. These grants are administered by the National Park Service in partnership with the Institute of Museum and Library Services.

This “Curating Angel” project will allow us to provide safe, long-term preservation of the artifacts and associated documentation from archaeological work at Angel Mounds and make these collections more accessible for research and education.

More about IMLS

The Institute of Museum and Library Services is the primary source of federal support for the nation’s libraries and museums. We advance, support, and empower America’s museums, libraries, and related organizations through grantmaking, research, and policy development. Our vision is a nation where museums and libraries work together to transform the lives of individuals and communities. To learn more, visit www.imls.gov and follow us on Facebook and Twitter.

(The views, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this blog post do not necessarily represent those of the Institute of Museum and Library Services.)

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